2-1/4 cups (288 grams) all-purpose flour, plus more for kneading
1-1/2 teaspoons (4-1/2 grams) dry instant yeast
1-1/2 teaspoons (9 grams) granulated sugar
1-1/2 teaspoons (9 grams) kosher salt
3/4 cup (177 milliliters) very warm tap water
1/2 cup (120 milliliters) olive oil, divided
1 cup (150 grams) coarsely grated Parmesan-Reggiano
Heat oven to 400°F (205°C). Oil a large bowl; set aside.
Trim 1/2 centimeter off top of garlic bulb to expose cloves. Place on a piece of aluminum foil and drizzle with olive oil and season with salt. Wrap the bulb tightly in foil and bake until softened, 40 to 45 minutes. Set aside to cool.
Combine 2-1/4 cups (288 grams) flour, instant yeast, sugar and salt in a large bowl.
Make a well in the middle of the mixture then pour in warm water and 1/4 cup (60 milliliters) of olive oil and stir with a wooden spoon to form a shaggy dough.
Turn dough onto a well-floured work surface. Squeeze the garlic out of the papery skin and onto the dough and knead for six minutes until soft and springy. Add more flour as needed to create a soft , but not sticky dough.
Shape dough into a ball and place in a prepared bowl. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and a clean kitchen towel and allow the dough to rise in a warm place until doubled in size, about one hour.
Pour remaining olive oil into a 33x23 centimeter baking pan and set aside.
Turn dough into pan and press to nearly fill pan, poking fingers into dough to stretch gently. Cover with plastic wrap and kitchen towel and allow it to rise in a warm place, until almost double in size, about 45 minutes to one hour.
Heat oven to 425°F (218°C). Scatter loaf with Parmesan-Reggiano and bake until golden brown, about 20 to 22 minutes.